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European Election Studies 1994

This research design was more elaborate than that of any previous European Election Study. In addition to a study of voters, the research design incorporated a study of candidates for the European Parliament elections, a study of Members of the European Parliament, and studies of Members of national Parliaments. These four components of EES94 were linked, with common questions about policy preferences and other matters. Thus the 1994 election study is not just a study of voting but also a study of representation. The European Representation Study is fully documented in Appendix 1 of Schmitt and Thomassen, eds. (1999), “Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union”. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The 1994 voters study consisted of a single wave of interviews, conducted immediately following the European elections of June 1994, with freshly drawn samples in all member states of the European Union. As in 1989, the questions were added to a special post-election Eurobarometer, and the questionnaires were identical in all member states (apart from unavoidable variations due to language and institutional differences) and a large number of questions were identical to those used in the 1989 study, thus permitting over-time comparisons of voter behavior in the 1989 and 1994 elections.

Data description available at: UK Data Archive 1, UK Data Archive 2, or ICPSR 1, ICPSR 2. The data can be obtained from the Cologne-based Zentralarchiv für Empirische Sozialforschung, now GESIS-ZA.

For the European Election Study (EES) Trend File and data from the EES surveys in 1989, 1994, 1999 and 2004, see also the website of Michael Marsh and Slava Mikhaylov at Trinity College Dublin.

  • Pilar del Cstillo (then CIS, Madrid, now Member of the European Parliament)
  • Cees van der Eijk (then University of Amsterdam, now University of Nottingham)
  • Mark Franklin (then University of Houston Texas, now EUI)
  • Richard Katz (Johns Hopkins University)
  • Renato Mannheimer (UniversitÓ Bicocca di Milano)
  • Michael Marsh (Trinity College Dublin)
  • Pippa Norris (Harvard University)
  • Erik Oppenhuis (then University of Amsterdam)
  • Hermann Schmitt (University of Mannheim)
  • Jacques Thomassen (University of Twente)
  • Bernard Weßels (Free University of Berlin, now WZB Berlin)
  • Colette Ysmal (then CEVIPOF, Paris)

Data Release
Availability of data releases

An Audit of Democracy in the European Union


EES Bibliography
Extensive bibliography for European Election Studies

Project Results Flyer
Download the PIREDEU Results Brochure (long) [ pdf - 1.2MB]

Project Results Flyer
Download the PIREDEU Results Brochure (short) [ pdf - 950KB]

Page updated: 30/07/08
Funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programme