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liberal- authoritarian values
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hajoboomgaarden
Posted 13/6/2008 18:09 (#55)
Subject: liberal- authoritarian values


New user

Posts: 4

The question of the relationship between traditional left and right issues and attitudes toward European integration is rather complex because it depends on the countries and party systems we are talking about (Eijk and Franklin, 2004). But in general, we should expect no linear relationship between left-right self-placement (and/or attitudes towards traditional left-right issues) and European integration.

According to the GAL-TAN approach, we should expect to find more Euroskeptic attitudes from people with Traditionalist, Authoritarian and Nationalist (TAN) orientations; the reverse is true for the Green, Alternative and Libertarian camp (Hooghe et al, 2004). Moreover, these authors have shown that at least at the party system level, what best explains parties’ orientations towards European integration is their respective position on the GAL-TAN divide, and this is a first and very strong reason to include issues tapping this dimension in the new EES 2009 survey. Considering that parties’ orientations do have an impact on ordinary citizens’ ideological orientations (Knutsen and Kumlin, 2005; Freire, 2008), this is yet another strong reason to consider these new politics issues (GAL-TAN or, as we prefer to call them, in line with other authors, libertarian-authoritarian issues) in the EES 2009 survey. Additionally, we believe that (at least as control variables) some substantive issues on the traditional left-right divide are also needed, which would be addresses by the proposed items.

In the traditional old politics framework the value conflict over “socioeconomic values”, or “left and right materialism” (Knutsen, 1988 and 1995; Knutsen and Scarbrough, 1995) is at the core of interest. On the right, it points to an opposition to the idea of socioeconomic equality and to a strong emphasis on the role of the market as the best mechanism for the allocation of social and economic scarce resources, as well as to the defence of a limited intervention of the state in the socioeconomic arena; on the left, there is a strong emphasis on the notion of socioeconomic equality (among social strata, in general, and social classes, in particular), as well as a defence of a significant role for the state in correcting social inequalities and in promoting citizens’ economic security.

As for the value conflicts embedded in the “new politics” setting, there are different perspectives about which are the relevant dimensions of value differentiation. Since the 1970’s, Ronald Inglehart (1971-1997) has been defending that there is a new major value conflict in modern societies, which is gradually coming to the forefront of the political arenas in modern post-industrial societies through generational replacement: the division between materialistic and post-materialistic values. Some other authors, however, have been defending that the major axis of value conflict characteristic of the new politics framework is not between materialists vs. post-materialists but between libertarians vs. authoritarians (Flanagan, 1987: 1311; Kitschelt, 1994: 28-30; see also Flanagan and Lee, 2003; Hooghe et al, 2004: 130-ff; Lee, 2007). Flanagan (1987: 1311) considers that the batteries of indicators used by Inglehart also measure mainly libertarian and authoritarian value orientations and that only a small subset do measure materialist and post-materialist value orientations.

According to Flanagan (1987: 1304), what he calls libertarian value orientations and Inglehart calls post-materialistic value orientations are basically the same thing, although he considers the first designation as more appropriate. In terms of indicators of libertarian values, the author considers attitudes toward issues like the following: emphasis on personal and political liberty; the defence of more citizen participation in decision making (at the social, the economic and the political levels); equality; high tolerance towards minorities, divergent opinions and alternative life-styles; emphasis on environmental protection and issues related to the quality of life. Of course, libertarians tend to vote more for left-wing parties (than authoritarians), especially those aligned with the new-left.

The differences between Flanagan (1987: 1304-1305) and Inglehart revolve mainly around the materialist pole. According to the former, materialistic value orientations are mainly characterized by the importance given to economic questions, be it in the personal sphere (high income, comfortable house, material well-being) or at the national level (economic growth, low inflation, etc.). However, in the different batteries of items used by Inglehart (see, for example: 1997, appendixes 4 and 5) to measure materialistic value orientations the indicators point more to authoritarian value orientations: strong armed forces, law and order, fight against crime. Flanagan (987: 1305) considers that authoritarian value orientations are subjacent to the following attitudes: concerns with law and order; respect for authority; priority to discipline and duty; patriotism and intolerance towards minorities; support to traditional moral and religious values. Of course, authoritarians tend to vote more for right-wing parties (than libertarians), especially those aligned with the new-right.

In a similar vein, Hooghe et al (2004: 130) characterize political competition around the new politics dimension (in Europe) as the opposition between two poles: GAL and TAN. “One pole combines ecology (or greenness), alternative politics (including participatory democracy), and libertarianism. We summarize this as the green/alternative/libertarian of GAL pole. The opposite pole combines support for traditional values, opposition to immigration, and defense of the national community. We summarize this as the traditional/authoritarian/nationalist or TAN pole. Hooghe et al (2004: 130)”


Items would include some adaptation of the following:
(Source: Comparative Candidate Survey)

People hold different views on political issues. What do you think of the following?
• Immigrants should be required to adapt to the customs of (country)
• Politics should abstain from intervening in the economy.
• Stronger measures should be taken to protect the environment.
• Same-sex marriages should be prohibited by law.
• Women should be given preferential treatment when applying for jobs and promotions
• Providing a stable network of social security should be the prime goal of government
• Income and wealth should be redistributed towards ordinary people.
• Women should be free to decide on matters of abortion.
• Torturing a prisoner is never justified, even if it might prevent a terrorist attack.
(Answers in a 5 point scale from “totally disagree” to “totally agree”, with a mid-point “neither agree nor disagree”)


Bibliographic references

Flanagan, Scott (1987), “Value change in industrial societies”, American
Political Science Review, 81 (4), pp. 1303-1319.
Flanagan, Scott C., and Lee, Aie-Rie (2003), “The New Politics, Culture Wars, and
the Authoritarian-Libertarian Value Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies”, Comparative Political Studies, 36 (3), pp. 235-271.
Freire, André (2008), “Party Polarization and Citizens’ Left-Right Orientations”,
Party Politics, 14 (2), pp. 189-209..
Hooghe, Liesbet, Gary Marks & Carole J. Wilson (2004), “Does Left/Right Structure
Party Positions on European Integration?”, in Gary Marks & Marco R. Steenbergen (eds), European Integration and Political Conflict. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.. 120-140.
Inglehart, Ronald (1971), "The silent revolution in Europe: intergenerational
change in post-industrial societies", American Political Science Review, LXV (4), pp. 991-1017.
Inglehart, Ronald (1984), “The changing structure of political cleavages in
western society”, in R. Dalton, S.C. Flanagan e P. A. Beck, Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment?, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, pp. 25-69.
Inglehart, Ronald (1987), “Value change in industrial societies”, American
Political Science Review, 81 (4), pp. 1289-1303 e 1318-1319.
Inglehart, Ronald (1997), Modernization and Post Modernization: Value Change
in 43 Societies, Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert (1994, 1996), The Transformation of European Social
Democracy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Knutsen, Oddbjorn (1988), “The Impact of Structural and Ideological Party Cleavages in West European Democracies: A Comparative Empirical Analysis”, British Journal of Political Science, 18, pp. 323-352.
Knutsen, Oddbjørn (1997), “The partisan and the value-based components of left-right self-placement: a comparative study”, International Political Science Review,18: 191-225.
Knutsen, Oddbjorn, and Kumlin, Staffan (2005), “Value Orientations and Party Choice”, in Thomassen, Jacques (ed.), The European Voter. A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies, Oxford: Oxford University Press: 125-166.
Knutsen, O., and Scarbrough, E. (1995), “Cleavage politics”, in Deth, J. W. van, and Scarbrough, E., The Impact of Values, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 492-524.
Lee, Aie-Rie (2007), “Value Cleavages, Issues, and Partisanship in East Asia”, Journal of East Asian Studies, 7 (2), pp. 251-274.


proposal by:

André Freire
Assistant Professor at ISCTE (Lisbon University Institute), Portugal, and senior researcher at CIES-ISCTE, Portugal.
www.cies.iscte.pt

Hajo Boomgaarden
Assistant Professor for Political Communication, Amsterdam School of Communications Research, University of Amsterdam
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MarkFranklin
Posted 15/6/2008 21:08 (#71 - in reply to #55)
Subject: RE: liberal- authoritarian values


Member

Posts: 11

I do think the GAL-TAN questions should be included in the voter survey and other instruments if at all possible, but I am a little concerned that the questions as suggested are all framed from the left-libertarian end of the spectrum. I think that as a matter of good questionnaire design, the ideological loading of the questions themselves should be randomized. I am not sure how much this would matter, but one feature of a telephone or internet survey is that such questions can be ordered differently for different respondents, which would enable us to embed an experiment into the EES09 that could determine how much framing matters with these questions - and perhaps with others.
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SaraHobolt
Posted 16/7/2008 16:40 (#97 - in reply to #55)
Subject: RE: liberal- authoritarian values




Posts: 26
25
Location: University of Oxford, UK
Dear Andre and Hajo,

Thank you for submitting this proposal to the Open Forum. The PIREDEU Steering Committee met at the end of June to evaluate each of the proposals. We assessed them on the basis of whether they met the following criteria:

* An explicit argument about why the proposed question/coding category merited inclusion in one or more of the PIREDEU data components.

* An explicit argument about the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the question/coding category.

* An explicit case for how the question/coding category facilitates integration and linking of several data components. The PIREDEU Steering Committee preferred proposals that allowed for conceptual integration across the five data components (i.e. voter survey, candidate survey, media study, manifestos and contextual data).

* An explicit consideration of how the proposed question/coding category linked with questions/coding categories in past data collection efforts.

The PIREDEU Steering Committee favoured proposals that ensured over time and across instrument comparability. Moreover, given that the voter and candidate surveys can only contain a limited number of question items, priority was given to proposals with succinct question formats.

On this basis we ranked each question in the proposal as follows:

(1) The proposed item will be included in data collection instrument
(2) High priority proposal that will be included if space and time constraints permit
(3) Proposal can only be included if additional funding is secured
(4) Proposed item is not a priority

The item(s) from your proposal received the following ranking(s):

Instrument: Voter Survey

People hold different views on political issues. What do you think of the following?
• Immigrants should be required to adapt to the customs of (country)
• Politics should abstain from intervening in the economy.
• Stronger measures should be taken to protect the environment.
• Same-sex marriages should be prohibited by law.
• Women should be given preferential treatment when applying for jobs and promotions
• Providing a stable network of social security should be the prime goal of government
• Income and wealth should be redistributed towards ordinary people.
• Women should be free to decide on matters of abortion.
• Torturing a prisoner is never justified, even if it might prevent a terrorist attack.
(Answers in a 5 point scale from “totally disagree” to “totally agree”, with a mid-point “neither agree nor disagree”)

Ranking: 1

Rationale: The voter survey team will include this item, but the final wording may differ from the proposed items.


Thank you again for your participation in this process. We hope that you will continue to use the Open Forum to comment on the questionnaires/codebook that will be posted online on the Forum in the autumn.

Yours sincerely,


Mark Franklin
Chair of the PIREDEU Steering Committee

Sara Hobolt
Deputy Chair of the PIREDEU Steering Committee


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